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ODS清洗剂有哪些优点和危害呢?

发布日期:2019-10-12 浏览次数:6

ODS清洗剂有哪些优点和危害呢?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of ODS?

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工业清洗领域使用最多的卤代烃清洗剂有氯代烃和氟氯烃两类,包括二氯甲烷、三氯甲烷(氯仿)、1,1,1-三氯乙烷、三氯乙烯、四氯乙烯、四氯化碳、三氟三氯乙烷(F-113)卤代烃清洗剂因其具有清洗能力强、不燃烧、干燥快、易蒸馏再生的优点被广泛使用。

The halogenated hydrocarbon cleaning agents used most in the industrial cleaning field are chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons, including dichloromethane, trichloromethane (chloroform), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, trifluorotrichloroethane (F-113) halogenated hydrocarbon cleaning agents, which have the advantages of strong cleaning ability, non-combustion, fast drying and easy distillation and regeneration.

1、毒性:上述溶剂除F-113和1,1,1-三氯乙烷外都有很大毒性,通过皮肤、呼吸接触或误食会引起肝、肾、血液中毒,轻者头晕、呕吐,重者会造成休克甚至死亡。一些溶剂在阳光照射下还会产生毒性极大的光气,有致癌作用。因此对使用场所和人员防护有严格要求,空气中最高容许浓度为10—500ppm。

1. Toxicity: Except for F-113 and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, the above solvents are very toxic. Liver, kidney and blood poisoning can be caused by skin, respiratory contact or eating by mistake. In light cases, dizziness and vomiting can occur. In heavy cases, shock or even death can occur. Some solvents can also produce toxic phosgene under sunlight, which has carcinogenic effect. Therefore, there are strict requirements for the use of places and personnel protection. The maximum allowable concentration in the air is 10-500 ppm.

2、腐蚀:因大部分卤代烃清洗剂中含有氯原子,在一定条件下会分解产生盐酸,对设备和金属工件产生腐蚀。大部分氯代烃溶剂会使塑料橡胶件溶解、溶胀、变形或脆化,使其清洗范围受到限制。

2. Corrosion: Because most halogenated hydrocarbon cleaning agents contain chlorine atoms, they will decompose to produce hydrochloric acid under certain conditions, which will cause corrosion to equipment and metal workpieces. Most chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents can dissolve, swell, deform or embrittle plastic rubber parts, which limits their cleaning range.

3、蒸发损失大:氯代烃清洗剂沸点低(一般在40~80℃),均属于易挥发液体,在运输、储存和使用过程中约有40%的清洗剂因蒸发而损失掉。

3. Large evaporation loss: low boiling point of chlorinated hydrocarbon cleaners (generally 40-80 C), are volatile liquids, about 40% of the cleaners lost due to evaporation during transportation, storage and use.

4、污染环境:氯代烃溶剂均不能自然降解,排放后对空气、水体和土壤有较严重的污染。

4. Pollution of the environment: Chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents can not be degraded naturally, and they pollute the air, water and soil seriously after discharge.

5、破坏臭氧层: F-113、四氯化碳和1,1,1-三氯乙烷的挥发气体滞留在大气中,随气流上升,在平流层受紫外线照射分解产生氯原子,氯原子作为一种催化剂,可长久的引发损害臭氧层的反应,使臭氧层阻挡紫外线的作用降低,对地球上的人和动、植物带来危害。

5. Destruction of the ozone layer: volatile gases of F-113, carbon tetrachloride and 1,1,1-trichloroethane remain in the atmosphere and decompose into chlorine atoms by ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere as the airflow rises. As a catalyst, chlorine atoms can cause long-term damage to the ozone layer, reduce the role of the ozone layer in blocking ultraviolet radiation, and bring harm to people, animals and plants on earth.

本文标题:ODS清洗剂有哪些优点和危害呢? 原文链接地址:http://www.fangxiuoil.com/show.asp?id=85

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